An Overview of the Internet Protocols
This chapter provides an overview of the Internet protocols currently in use. Protocols are included if they are directly relevant to a report’s purposes, such as information retrieval and distributed services. Protocols at a low level are not included, because they are not directly related. For example, a server stores an image in memory and converts it into a package with headers. The headers are then removed from packets in reverse order, and the data is returned as the original.
IPv4 is a connectionless protocol that does not guarantee delivery. It does not organize data packets, which is handled by the transport layer. It can be configured to allow multicast addresses and has approximately eighteen million addresses. IPv4 supports both multicast and unicast addressing modes, though it does not allow data to be sent to more than one host at a time. Each host is addressed by an IP address. IPv4 is the dominant internetworking protocol.
TCP was developed by DARPA and released in 1982. IPv4 is still the primary network protocol, controlling internet traffic today. It uses a 32-bit address space to send and receive data. This gives users four million unique addresses. However, some networks do not use IPv6 as their primary protocol. If you are not sure which protocol to use, you can start by comparing IPv4 with IPv6. If you’re not sure which one to use, read the wiki article about the Internet protocols.
The first IP header of IPv6 contains four bits specifying the version of the protocol. This number changes as IPv6’s number of bits increases. It also includes 8 bits, which tell the target host how qualitatively it should process the datagram. IPv6 also introduces a new feature called FlowLabel, which allows you to identify different data streams and optimize routing. This feature is similar to Type of Service in older variants.
IPv4 is the second Internet protocol, after TCP. This protocol is very similar to IPv6, except it uses the UDP (Unicode) standard instead. IPv4 is the most widely used, and the most common protocol. IPv4 has more than four million connections. It is also more secure than IPv6. The RFC also identifies the different layers of IPv4 in IPv6. The RFC itself contains more than six thousand protocols.
The Point-to-Point Protocol is another Internet protocol. It establishes a direct connection between two devices. It specifies rules for information exchange and authentication. PPP is used when a user connects his PC to an ISP server or a router and wants to share information with another user. A single server machine is often thousands of miles apart. It also makes use of a variety of protocols, including the ICMP protocol.
There are two main types of Internet protocols: transport and application. The Transport layer moves data packets and maintains connectivity between independent networks. The Application layer is responsible for handling data and ensures it is received in a proper format. Finally, the Application Layer manages application-layer messages. Common Transport Layer protocols include TCP and UDP. It is important to remember that these protocols have many other uses. In general, IP is used to transfer data between computers.