Advantages of Using Window Film

Why use Window Film? Everyone knows the damage the sun can do to anything that is constantly subjected to the rays. Your drapes and furniture are proof of how the sun can fade them wherever it shines until they are completely ruined. This is a problem for many people who do not know what else to do other than purchase heavily lined drapes and try to keep their home furnishings out the sunlight.

Instead of closing yourself in and having no idea what the outside world looks like, a solution to your problems can be to use Window Film. This is one of the ways you can get rid of those heavy ugly drapes and put pretty window treatments up without worrying about them being ruined by the sun. Window Film is available in a multitude of types that will compliment your home and allow you to see out without having your privacy invaded.

A good type of Window Film is Huper Optik. This is a high performing, energy conserving solar protectant film that will allow you to let the light of day in without harming your furniture, carpet, or curtains. Huper Optik has an infra-red elimination of up to 98%. The UV rejection rate is more than 99%.

This is a hard coat that is scratch resistant so you do not have to worry about it developing spots that can allow the sunlight to creep through. The glare is practically non-existent. And if you are worried about how it will look, do not be worried. It is practically invisible so you do not have a metallic look to your windows.

There are many types of Window Film that have a limited lifetime warranty. Using this Window Film can reduce your utility bills by providing less heat through your windows. The air conditioning does not have to work as hard so the cost of your electricity should reduce significantly.

If this is not reason enough to consider using Window Film on your windows, you may want to consider the fact that not only is Window Film energy efficient but it is shatter proof so there are no flying shards of glass if your window should get broken.

When you use Window Film on your windows not only are you helping to save your furniture and curtains as well as yourself from the damaging rays of the sun but you are helping to preserve energy in more ways than one. The more light you can let into your home, the less artificial light is needed which saves on the cost of electricity.

If you compare two rooms with the air conditioning set on the same degree, the one with Window Film on the windows will feel cooler longer and the air conditioner will stay off longer between cycles because of the help that Window Film gives your home to function more efficiently. For blocking the harmful and hot rays of the sun from your home, you can use Window Film in all of your rooms as well as your vehicle.

How the Financial Landscape of Pet Pharmaceuticals Has Been Changed by the Internet

The late 1980’s and early 90’s brought about the birth of the consumer internet. Still written off by many companies as a novel invention, a secondary market, the internet was not a major concern. Since the mid 1990’s, with more and more people becoming connected to the internet, the potential for companies to reach consumers right in their homes began to be realized. Since then the internet has brought about a great change in the way business is conducted. Companies began allocating resources to internet development initiatives. The World Wide Web brought companies and investors together into a rapidly evolving market.

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The .com bubble that emerged from 1997-2000 followed subsequently by a bust immediately thereafter left many internet startup companies of the time underfunded. The pet products industry gave us one of the most notable failures of the .com bubble, Pets.com. Initially well-funded, with an advertising budget that bought super bowl ads, the company failed due to a poor distribution model.

Though overshadowed by Pets.com, another pet related company emerged through the internet bubble and over the last 15 years, has impacted the distribution model of the Pet Pharmaceuticals and OTC industry. This paper will explore the economic and financial impact of Pet Meds Express Inc on the Veterinarian and Pet Pharmaceuticals market and analyze the path the company followed to become the largest online Pet Pharmacy in the world.

The Evolving Pet Meds Industry

In January of 2012, Dr. Doug Mader, former president of the North American Veterinary Conference moderated a heated debate between PetMeds Express and the Veterinarian community. This debate was due to the way PetMeds express generated revenue, by changing the distribution chain in the Veterinarian Pharmacy industry. Until PetMeds Express started an online pet pharmacy, Veterinarians held a sort of monopoly on distribution of pet meds. But how does a relatively small company in the Pharmaceutical industry make this kind of impact? PetMeds Express understood the potential of the internet early and creating a new market.

To better understand the effect that PetMeds Express is having on the pet pharmaceuticals industry, it is important to first understand the industry that they operate within. Zoetis, Pfizer pharmaceuticals animal health medications offshoot, estimates that the growing global food demand in emerging markets for animal proteins and the increased standard of living in emerging markets have helped the animal medicines and vaccines market grow to the currently estimated $22Billion market. Within this global market, PetMeds Express participates in a $4Billion dollar U.S. industry, according to their estimates. Multiple pharmaceutical manufacturers develop and sell pet pharmaceutical products, they sell directly to Veterinarians.

Within a $4Billion market, the internet has allowed a new company to come in and change the distribution system, even without the support of the manufacturing companies. Though PetMeds Express makes up only 6% of the US Animal Pharmaceuticals market, the company brought to light the potential within this market niche attracting competitors and the attention of bib box retailers, something that could cause further thinning of revenues and margins if PetMeds Express cannot align with manufacturers in the near future.

Animal Pharmaceutical Distribution in the US

Since the major pharmaceutical companies have refused to work directly with PetMeds Express to date PetMeds Express needed to navigate the supply chain in a creative way. Instead of buying from, manufacturers directly, PetMeds express has been forced to buy from a ‘gray market’ of distributors, assumed to be Veterinarians that order in large quantities to supply the company, though PetMeds Express representatives have not confirmed their supply sources.

Individual Veterinarian practices that dominate this market have voiced concern that the growing internet and retail ‘big box’ approach is eating away at one of their profit centers. Prior to this competition, Veterinarians’ enjoyed a relatively non-competitive market. Animal owners would visit a Veterinarian, and due to convenience, would purchase medication directly from the Vet. This practice started to be threatened with the emergence of the PetMeds Express model, though Veterinarians still enjoy the major market share of around 67% according to PetMeds Express investor data. We must keep in mind that this figure represents individual Veterinarians and group practices together. These practices do not share in the same economies of scale as PetMeds Express, nor do they individually represent major competitors.

It is interesting to note that Dr. Foster and Smith Inc, a major competitor of PetMeds Express Inc, was founded in 2003. The Dr. Foster & Smith brand was also an early entrant to the internet market. Though the company is stock was up to an estimated $250 Million6 in 2008 and has since been estimated at around $170 Million. They are close in market cap to PetMeds Express with distribution via the internet as well, however, they are grouped in with the Veterinarians in the 67% market share. Assuming other variables are equal with this private company, they could make up a relatively similar +/-6% of the Veterinarian market, leaving around 60% of the current market to traditional Veterinarians.

Currently, PetMeds Express represents a small Cap stock with a market cap of $257,212,860 in 2012. Despite PetMeds Express’ relatively small segment of the market, there is cause for worry among the Veterinarian community. In 2004, when the company went public, the industry was estimated to be at $3Billion and PetMeds reported revenue of $93,994 left the company with only 3% of the market at that time. Compare that with 6% of the $4Billion dollar current market and we see the trend of this online retailer’s market segment growing. However, as with any business, past performance does not guarantee future profits.

PetMeds isn’t the only threat to the Veterinarian retail pharmaceutical segment. The company’s growth attracted competition and now the distribution includes The “veterinarians, online and traditional retailers.” In fact, it is the retail segment that is beginning to lower margins for PetMeds Express and creates a problem the company must address and work to overcome

In efforts to continue maximizing shareholder value, retailers like Wal-Mart and Target also want a larger slice of the pet medication segment. Their large volume purchasing power makes them a great threat to both the Veterinarians and the new online retail segment in which PetMeds operates. In 2011 and 2012 PetMeds Express has started seeing the effects of a highly competitive market slow down growth, increase the cost of new customers and reduce profit margins.

Ethics and Risk in the Pet Medicine Industry

When PetMeds Express entered the market, they were depending on consumers that enjoyed the convenience of purchasing over the counter medications on the internet as well as those consumers whose veterinarians either did not carry various prescribed medicines. Veterinarians however, receive about 25% of their revenue from the sale of prescriptions that they write and fill. As the company evolved, so did PetMeds Express business model, which ended in some ethical problems that the company faced. As with all publicly traded companies, PetMeds express had to figure out how to increase profits but how could they increase sales of prescription medications and thus increase profits?

This problem initiated an innovative idea that would allow consumers to call up, consult with a Veterinarian over the phone and immediately receive a prescription, which was converted to an order and sent out to the customer. This was an excellent way for the online prescription drug retail business to grow. If customers could skip the Veterinarian visit all together, PetMeds Express could capitalize on more pet owners that valued convenience and generate another income stream through their Veterinarian consultations. However, this method of selling prescriptions without actually seeing the animal did not sit right with the rest Veterinary community. Already worried that the growing online company could eat into the Veterinarian’s revenue stream from medication sales, PetMeds Express had crossed an ethical line that caught the attention of the Veterinarian community as well as regulators.

Only three years into operations in 1999, PetMeds Express was disciplined by the Florida Board of Pharmacy for the over the phone prescriptions. The company received a $30,000.00 fine, but more than this, they upset the Veterinarian community. Though the company immediately complied, this former practice continues to come up, even at the 2012 North American Veterinary Conference (NAVC).

At the 2012 NAVC, a petition by Birmingham, AL Veterinarian, Dr. Doralee Donaldson, drew 149 signatures and ended up with PetMeds Express withdrawing as a sponsor of the event. Instead, representatives of PetMeds Express showed up to the NAVC and did a panel discussion, attempting to mend ill feelings from the Veterinarian community. Moving forward, PetMeds express intends to work with the Veterinary community, encouraging regular Vet visits and attempting to show Veterinarian’s that there is room in the market for both interests.

Financial Analysis

PetMeds was the first non-veterinarian owned commercialized online pet pharmaceutical company and first public company in the space. When new competition in the online space along with the competition from the retail segment began, profits began to get sluggish. By reviewing data taken from the company’s annual reports, we can see that PetMeds Express has experienced a decline in total revenues since 2010. Profit Margins stayed close to 10.5% in the years from 2008 to 2010, however 2011 and 2012 saw year over year declines, with a margin of just less than 7% for 2012.

By analyzing the online company from a different approach, we can see how the company is maximizing the potential of their people. According to Lowell L. Bryan of McKinsey Quarterly, an excellent measure an internet era company’s performance is profit per employee. In addition to measuring returns on invested capital, this shows the contribution made by the team members. Bryan says that “from 1995 to 2005, the top 30 largest companies in the world (ranked by market capitalization) have seen their profit per employee rise to $83,000, from $35,000.”

Using this methodology to analyze the annual profit to number of employees taken from PetMeds Express annual reports, we see they had their best year in 2010 with profit/employee of $114,546. The stock has suffered in the last couple years and so has the profit per employee; in 2012 the profit/employee was down to $80,478. Not bad for a small cap company.

The drop in profits is due to several factors, including the poor economy, which is causing pet owners to be more cost conscious, increased entrance into the market by other online retailers like Amazon.com, and an increase in competition from large retail chains like Wal-Mart, Target, Wal-Greens. This means that PetMeds Express must advertise more, and lower their prices to stay competitive, thereby lowering profit margins in the short term until other strategies, including additional advertising, help the company grow.

By examining the graph on the right, we can see how PetMeds Express has performed against the market. This graph shows how $100 invested in 2007 would perform if invested in PetMeds Express vs. the S&P 500, Russell 2000 and Nasdaq Composite Indexes. From 2008 to 2010, their stock experienced high growth and performed well against the market with the $100 investment at $187.09. However this changed in 2011 when the company experienced more competition and lower profit margin and pricing. If we look at the trend in 2009 PETS enjoyed a 48.5% gain, followed in 2010 by a 35% gain. In 2011 there was a 28.5% loss and a 21.9% loss in 2012 which puts the stock back on par with the other indexes, however still trending down.

Ratio Analysis

PetMeds Express has grown quickly and carved out a niche internet based distribution system for pet OTC and prescription drugs. By looking at the company’s solvency, liquidity and profitability, through ratio analysis we can see if there are some financial causes for concern outside of the slipping profits. We can get a better understanding of this by looking at the company’s financial ratio’s based on the last 4 quarters ending March 31, 2013

Liquidity

The company has a current ratio of 8.03 which is very high. This leaves the company in a good position if they need to acquire related competitors. This number is also due to the large amount of inventory the company, which can be seen by removing the inventory in the quick ratio of 5.81. The Net Working Capital is $59,162, so there is no immediate risk of the company running out of money.

Use of Assets:

The 12 month inventory turnover ratio is at 5.83. If we compare this to the largest Pet retail store, PetsMart, their 2012 inventory turnover ratio was at 7. If compared with a human pharmacy, the industry standard is 12. Even though PetMeds Express is below this, they also have higher overhead and a larger inventory holding expense. This lower ratio could also due to inefficiencies in the gray market system PetMeds Express must purchase through.

Profitability:

The return on assets ratio is.19 while the return on equity ratio is.21, so even though the company’s profit margin for 2012 was.07, they are still doing well for their shareholders. On top of this, the profit margin increased to from.07 to.09 during the first quarter of 2013, perhaps an indicator that the company is finding ways to lower their costs, or that the increase in marketing in response to more competition is beginning to work. By continuing to watch this number, we will get an idea of the potential for PetMeds Express to remain competitive.

Debt Indicators:

The total debt ratio of.11 and the debt to equity ratio of.12 shows that PetMeds Express may not be fully utilizing their leverage. Since they have hit a couple of rough years of declining profits, they should consider investing in other companies that could strengthen their position.

PetMeds Express has also experienced year over year drop in EPS in 2011 and 2012. EPS was 1.14 in 2009 and began to decline to.92 in 2011 and.78 in 2012. The PE Ratio in 2012 was 14 and is currently listed at 15.14 Based on this the price investors are willing to pay would be about 18 for 2012.

Using the 2012 PE ratio and analyzing some of PetMeds current market competitors in the pet and pharmacy business, we get an average P/E ratio of 19.5. Using this number we can multiply the industry average with PetMeds EPS of.82 leaving us with about $16 per share intrinsic value. It seems Pet Meds stock could be slightly undervalued currently.

Future Potential

PetMeds Express must do something to close the gap between their current and previous performance. The additional advertising the company started in the last 2 years has started helping them rebound. What are some other options the company may have?

Since PetMeds Express depends on the gray market for distribution, they have a high level of risk if large box stores leverage their purchasing power and connections to gain an advantage. PetMeds Express could manage to negotiate wholesale agreements directly from the pharmaceutical manufacturers, lowering their overhead. However this type of distribution would likely be available to their competitors as well if opened up.

The company is relatively financially healthy and facing a highly competitive market. Perhaps they could consider a partnership with the competition. An obvious partnership would be with one of the large retailers like PetsMart. Both Pet retailers face competition from Wal-Mart and other larger retailers. A partnership could open a new shared revenue stream for each company as well as potentially sharing their purchasing power. Though cannibalization of some other products couple play a role in the potential benefit of offering PetMeds pharmaceuticals at the popular and growing store front retailer. Though PetsMart has their own online retail, they do not carry pharmaceuticals. Perhaps the established brand of PetMeds Express would be able to handle the pharmaceuticals that these companies currently do not carry.

Perhaps looking to one of the leaders in the global pharmaceutical industry, like Pfizer, can give us some insight into the future potential of the market. Pfizer recently re-branded their Animal Health division into Zoetis, showing that Pfizer see’s the potential in this segment enough to brand for it specifically. With some good business decisions focused on creating partnerships, especially with the pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, PetMeds Express can continue to define itself as the online force to be reckoned with in the animal medicine industry.

Conclusion

The company has made it through some rough beginnings including several legal battles. They pulled through the internet.com bubble and grew into the largest Animal Pharmacy with 6% of the market. After examining the company’s financial ratios, it appears that the company is currently healthy. This is likely one of the reason’s Zack’s average brokerage rating for this stock is a hold.

After reviewing the company’s history and current stock performance we get a picture of an innovative company that grew with technology, but now must continue to be agile and adapt to change as competition catches up. PetMeds Express has gained 6% market share within the US Pet Pharmaceuticals industry since the company started in 1996. This growth attracted competition to the distribution chain. These competitors include other online retailers and large national discount retailers that are forcing prices lower and decreasing profit margins. In total, Since PetMeds Express was a pioneer in the nationalized pet pharmacy model during a fast moving internet era, they have been a major influence in Veterinarian’s losing 33% of this market and changing the distribution model within the industry in 17 years.

Should You Take Nutritional Supplements?

Throughout the world, a lot of people have problems with their digestive systems that make it hard to absorb nutrients and break down the food they eat. This is a common problem that is usually caused by a poor level of acid in the stomach, toxins, or a lack of enzymes that assist in the process of breaking down food. There are other causes as well, although the above are the most common.

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Problems with the digestive tract can be improved quite a bit if you slowly increase your intake of quality nutrients. A diet that is high in organic matter is the preferred way to improve your digestion, although you may need to use nutritional supplements as well.

The best thing about nutritional supplements is the fact that you don’t need a prescription. You can select which ones you want on your own then purchase them at your local nutrition store or online.

The ideal time to take supplements is with your meals. During this time, your body can absorb the nutrients better, as your digestive system will be stimulated with food. If you are using time released supplements, you should take them with food to ensure that they move through your body at the right pace and release the proper amount of nutrients and vitamins your body needs at the right time.

Vitamins that are water soluble are the easiest to use, as they will pass through the body easily and quickly, and should be taken three times a day. Vitamins that are fat soluble are best absorbed if they are taken with food that contains fat. You should always take vitamins with meals, as the minerals and nutrients found in food will work with the vitamin supplements.

There are some supplements that may interfere with others when your body absorbs them, so you should always make sure what you are taking is acceptable to take with other forms of vitamin supplements. Below, is a list of the most common vitamins and how you should go about taking them.

1. Vitamins A, D, and E – These vitamins should always be taken with meals that contain fat or oil.

2. Vitamin B – You should always take vitamin B supplements as soon as you wake up, to get the maximum benefit. You can also take them during the day with a whole grain meal.

3. Vitamin C – Supplements containing vitamin C should be taken with meals and never on an empty stomach.

4. Iron – Iron supplements should always be taken with food, as they are easy to absorb this way.

5. Multi-vitamins -You can take multi-vitamins at anytime, although you should always consume a small meal with the supplement.

Even though you may be on a healthy diet, you should still make sure that you are getting the proper vitamins and supplements as well. Supplements will help your body get the vitamins and minerals it needs, especially on days that you aren’t able to eat what you should. Life can get hectic at times, which is where supplements can really come in handy.

If you include supplements in your diet and take them correctly, you’ll find that your body will be much healthier. There are many different vitamins and supplements that you can take, although they will depend on what you are trying to achieve. You should always research a vitamin that you are interested in taking, and make sure it fits your nutritional needs before you decide to purchase it.

How Safe Is Your Baby Formula Water

Where do you get your baby formula water? Did you know that babies are very susceptible to contaminants found in tap water? That is why it is important to use only clean, safe, and pure water for baby formula. Babies depend on you for proper care and nutrition. That is why it is crucial that you use baby formula water that has been properly purified and free from contamination.

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What is in tap water that makes it dangerous for babies?

There are many contaminants found in tap water. Two types of contaminants, specifically biological and chemical, are most dangerous to the health of babies.

BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINANTS
Biological contaminants like bacteria, viruses, and parasites carry several water borne diseases. Water borne diseases mainly present with diarrhea and this in turn can lead to dehydration.
Dehydration is fatal to infants and there are millions of death each year brought about by dehydration due to diarrhea. Water borne diseases are actually the second leading cause of death in infants. Examples of water borne diseases which may be acquired by using unsafe baby formula water are typhoid, cholera, amebiasis, hepatitis A, rotavirus, cryptosporidiosis, and E. coli.

CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS
Chemical contaminants are also very dangerous for babies.
These can affect intellectual development, nervous system function, and behavior.

Chemical contaminants can lead to developmental delays, learning disabilities, cancer, and even death.

Some of the common chemicals in tap water are lead, benzene, nitrites, and arsenic. Lead from old lead pipes can damage the kidneys and the nerves, cause learning disabilities and mental defects, and even cancer.

Benzene, which comes from pollution and industrial seepage, can cause damage to the central nervous system and cause leukemia. Arsenic, which comes from mining and industrial emissions, can cause several types of cancer including skin cancer and kidney cancer.

You could be subjecting your baby to these health threats by giving him or her contaminated baby formula water. If you want to be sure about the quality of the water you will give your baby, have a water filtration system installed in your home. There are counter top filters, under the counter filters, faucet filters, and even whole house filters from which you can choose.

Filtration effectively removes biological, chemical, and physical contaminants in water. This makes water safe for drinking, cooking, and other household purposes for your family, especially for the safety of your little one.

Babies are precious and they are sensitive to the environment. They are easily affected by harmful things and they need you to protect them. Make sure that you give them the protection they need by giving them pure, clean water that has been properly purified.

The importance of on-site SEO Optimization

SEO optimization for websites is a way of improving the quality and quantity of website visitors who visit an individual site or webpage by optimizing content, structure, and design. SEO concentrates on direct traffic either paid or unpaid but is not necessarily organic traffic. Organic traffic isn’t always targeted. The objective of on-site SEO optimization is to boost the number of visitors who visit the website without sending them to a website in which they are not interested.

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Search engines are aware of the distinction between off and on SEO optimization for sites. On site SEO optimization strategy is one that concentrates on attracting specific visitors to a site. On the other hand, an off-site SEO strategy seeks to bring visitors from search engines to the website, but without targeting the users specifically. SEO strategies like writing articles as well as directory submission, and commenting on blogs. Certain marketers might also employ paid links and sponsored links to boost their SEO efforts. SEO methods are employed in the hands of Internet marketers to increase their website’s visibility within search engine results.

There are two major advantages of on-site SEO optimization. The first is that people who go to a site using this method are inclined to become drawn to the site , and also follow links that are on the site to other websites. For example, an online site might want to draw customers from other sites which sell similar items. If it is possible to place advertisements on another website to which the e-commerce website is linked this second website will attract visitors to it. If the advertisement leads the customer to a page which has content that is not relevant to the site that is e-commerce-related this site could lose its link and thus lose its customers. Sites should aim to keep an appropriate quality of linking across their entire site.

Another benefit of on-site SEO has to do with the fact that it enhances the effectiveness of the site. It increases the rank of the site’s page in results of search engines. Because it’s hard to rank for multiple keywords simultaneously The more traffic from search engines directed to the site, the greater the importance of the website. This is the reason that the optimization for search engines of the website is referred to as “SEO”. If search engines see the presence of relevant links on the website and begin to show the website’s URL higher in the results. When traffic to the site grows the amount of people who visit the site increases as do the likelihood of ranking higher in results of the search engines.

On-site SEO optimization is the process of improving the number of links that point to the site. It usually happens by using text links that are hyperlinked phrases located within the text. Link building methods have been refined over the time, but they’re still fairly new. They generally require the use of a variety of tools and techniques that are created to build the most number of links that point towards the site as is possible. Sometimes, these strategies include using multiple links to gain more exposure in results of a search engine.

However, certain on-site SEO optimization strategies involve creating content that targets the client base of the business. This is done to develop a niche marketing strategy. This allows the business to establish relationships with people who are likely to purchase their goods or service. If it is done well this method of optimization will allow companies to achieve the highest ranking on results pages of search engines.

Certain companies opt to use the services of on-site SEO optimization services provided by an outside company. This allows them to concentrate on the technical aspects of developing a website while their web developers remain focused on the content aspects of the website. This is usually less expensive than hiring an internal Web developers. While the outsourced team is able to provide the same high-quality work, it could be less efficient as the team can’t offer the on-site SEO optimization classes which a company might require in the event of hiring an in-house team.

A lot of experts believe that the web SEO optimization is vital in today’s highly competitive world of online businesses. One of the best ways for businesses to succeed in this competitive market is to make sure that it can establish itself as an industry leader. Through ensuring it establishes an effective online presence and creates an effective niche marketing strategy firms can prosper. One way to do this is to make sure that the website’s web pages have been optimized. That will make sure that the company is well-known on the internet.

Easy Steps to Fast and Lasting Weight Loss

When it comes to losing weight there are no magic pills or secret diets that can help you reach your weight loss goals. But you can achieve your goals with these 3 steps to help lose weight.

Like most things in life losing weight (a lot of weight) boils down to conscious effort, discipline, determination and perseverance.

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Losing 10, 20, 50 or 100 pounds or more all comes back to what you do on a daily basis. If you do what you’re supposed to do (eat right + exercise) day in a day out you will eventually lose all the weight you want.

However, if you throw caution to the wind and don’t do what you’re supposed to do then you may never see your weight loss dreams come true. This my friend is the saddest scenario there is.

If you’re bored of being fat, if your tired of being overweight, if your ready to start your new life today then hold on because I am about to give you the simple yet extremely effective weight loss plan you’ve been waiting for.

Are you ready? I am going to tell you in no uncertain terms what you have to do to lose all the weight you want in 3 easy to do steps. However, in order for this to work you must maintain your focus and discipline everyday to keep doing the steps until you reach your desired results.

Even if you falter and veer off your weight loss track, it’s OK. If you are able to quickly get back on track you will overtime, reap the benefits of dramatic weight loss and improved health.

And now, without further adieu here are your 3 basic steps to weight loss…

1. EAT LESS

2. EAT BETTER

3. EXERCISE

There they are. What do you think? A little anti-climatic, huh? Maybe you were expecting more… Well, let me tell you if you are able to grasp and implement this powerfully safe and effective weight loss plan is you will never again have to spend another unnecessary dime on weight loss products that don’t work.

You see, your body is a fine tuned weight loss management machine. If you follow the right plan and give your body only what it needs to survive it will do all the hard work for you.

Given enough time and following the 3 steps above you can lose tens and even hundreds of pounds without starving yourself or resorting to bogus weight loss pills or dangerous body sculpting surgeries.

Now, this is not to say that the road to significant weight loss will be easy or that you will not have to suffer a bit to reach your desired results. There will be days when you feel like throwing in the towel and giving up.

On those days you might just cave into your undeniable cravings and go crazy at your local all you can eat artery clogging buffet. But hey,that’s OK. You’re human. Sometimes you have to go a little nuts to get back on track.

However, if you are truly committed to reaching even your most seemingly unattainable weight loss goals you can and will do it by following the plan above. Now, for your benefit let’s go a little deeper into each step of the plan.

1. EAT LESS

There is really no doubt about it. If you want to lose weight you have to start eating less. You have to create a calorie deficiency in order for you body to start shedding pounds.

If you do not begin to limit how much food you take in no amount of exercise will help you reach your goals. Eating less of your favorite greasy, fat filled foods will be the quickest way to dramatic weight loss.

It really doesn’t matter how much weight you have to lose. Unless you take control of both your conscious and unconscious eating habits you’ll be hard pressed to lose even one pound.

No, you have to start cutting back on the amount of food you are used to eating. I’ve heard of stories where people would go to Mc Donald’s and pack away two Super Sized Big Mac Meals.

Obviously, this is way too much. In this situation even cutting down to one Super Size meal would be an improvement. But, as we will see in our next step, a better plan would be to do away with the Super Size meal all-together and start eating better.

2. EAT BETTER

As the saying goes, “We are what we eat.” If we eat crap, guess what? However, if we learn to eat well then not only will our waistline thank us for it but we’ll also feel better about ourselves to boot.

One of the quickest changes you can make to your diet when trying to lose weight is to ditch all the junk food you may be used to eating (chips, sodas, pizzas, donuts, cookies, etc) and start eating more vegetables.

Now, I know what you might be thinking. You may still be traumatized by your mother not letting you get up from the dinner table until you finished all your broccoli but let me tell you, your mother was right.

If you can fill half your plate at every meal with high fiber and nutrient packed vegetables you are well on your way to significant and long lasting weight loss. This is probably one of the simplest things you can do to really kickstart your weight loss journey.

While it might not be easy to start eating vegetables at every meal the sooner you begin the better off you’ll be and the quicker the weight will start to melt off your body.

3. EXERCISE

In order to kick your weight loss adventure into high gear you have to get your body moving. I don’t care if you call it working out, exercising, aerobics or whatever the point is you have to do something to get your heart rate up and your sweat glands working overtime.

Exercise is the key to sustainable, long lasting and real weight loss. For every pound you lose by eating right and exercising that is one more pound that will never come back to haunt you.

Why? Because you now know the “secret” to safe and effective weight loss. If you ever feel yourself creeping back up on the dreaded scale o’ fat all you have to do is put these 3 steps into action and watch as you stabilize and contradict any unwanted weight gain.

By exercising on a regular basis you are giving your body the energy boost it needs to ramp up your metabolism rate to start efficiently and effectively losing weight on a daily basis. I don’t about you but that sounds pretty darn good to me.

The more you push yourself physically the faster you will see change in your body occur. You may not have to work out with a personal trainer everyday but you do need to do something.

Be it going for a walk, running, swimming, biking, hiking, or any other physical activity you like to do start doing it now. Don’t spend another night on the couch watching the latest re-runs. Get your body moving and start losing weight today.

Passing Your Firefighter Exam Will Depend on More Than Just Your Aptitude

Firefighting is a noble profession that demands extreme self-sacrifice. However, there is a fine line between self-sacrifice and lack of knowledge. For this very reason, aspiring firefighters must first pass a test which determines their suitability for the job. Seasoned firefighters have the opportunity to judge a candidate’s dedication, bravery and potential to become a good firefighter. This is a job you have to love or you won’t last.

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Test-Taking

However, if firefighting is your dream and you feel it to the depths of your soul then you need to be fully prepared for the firefighting exam. The first secret of passing any exam is to know what the test makers want, what they are looking for. Even though diligent study is compulsory to be able to pass the exam, there will still be some questions that elude you. If you understand how questions are structured then you will be able to make an educated guess, which is a lot better than no answer at all.

What Are the Test Makers Looking For?

The written firefighter exam is designed to test a wide range of skills and abilities, including reading comprehensions, ability to follow directions, problem-solving, memory, mechanical abilities, map reading and your memory. There will not be any questions included in the test on firefighting rules, regulations and procedures, as it is federal mandate that candidates are not tested without prior training.

The firefighter exam contains questions that have two main objectives. The first is to determine your knowledge and how much you have learned, while the second measures your development potential. Even though regulations state that you do not need to know fire regulations and procedures, job related questions are still related as a way to test your innate problem solving skills as well as your judgment and common sense.

Practice Makes Perfect

The old adage makes perfect sense, as the more practice tests you take, the more you will be able to understand the firefighting exam and what the test makers are looking for. It will also help you cement any new concepts you have learned by continuous recall and review.

What is on the Firefighter Exam?

The firefighter’s exam aims to test a number of areas such as your ability to understand and interpret information that is presented in graphs, charts, tables and diagrams. These questions are also useful in determining your capacity to follow written directions. Your mechanical inclinations will also be tested, to determine how well you understand the operation of different devices. You’re deductive reasoning will also be tested as well as your ability to interpret data to detect problems or potential problems.

One of the biggest obstacles in passing any exam, including the firefighter exam, is speed. People rush through the exam without thinking because they focus on a difficult problem, wasting too much time and then having to rush through the remaining questions. This is why it is important to leave the more difficult questions for the end of the exam, if you wish to pass the firefighter exam, that is.

Sleepiness and Snoring Apnea Sleep Apnea and Snoring – How Are They Related?

Sleep is an extremely important element in our daily lives. According to experts , we should get around 9 hours of uninterrupted sleep to “recharge your batteries” so that we can be energetic, lively, and ready to take on the day ahead. If sleep disorders disrupt our sleeping patterns, or diminish the quantity of restful rest that we receive, it will impact our ability to function effectively in the coming day. Sleep apnea is an example of such condition, and in this article , we’re going to review of snoring and sleep apnea in order to understand how they’re related to each other, the reasons they occur and how they can be treated.

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Snoring can be a sign of sleep apnea, and is one of the most obvious signs to detect, in fact it’s often the source of confusion between the two partners. However, it does not necessarily mean that if you sleep you’re suffering from Sleep Apnea, but on the other hand, most of those who suffer from what’s called professionally “OSA”, (Obstructive Sleep Apnea) are snorers which means that in this instance sleeping apnea and snoring are interconnected.

Let’s begin by defining the meaning behind OSA. OSA is a term used to describe a condition in which people experience instances where breathing ceases for a brief time (often more than 10 second) in the course of sleep. It alters the pattern of sleep which can alter your sleep pattern However, most of the time the patient does not awake and, therefore, probably not even know of the condition. To understand how sleep apnea and snoring can be related, we must take an in-depth look at the potential causes.

When we’re awake when we are awake, the muscles of the upper throat open the airway which allows us to breathe. While we sleep the muscles in the upper part of our throat relax, however with the majority of people , their airways remain open. However, in some individuals the throat region is smaller and during sleep, it is completely closed, causing an increase in breathing, and the snoring. Sometimes, the breathing ceases for short periods of time, and this is is known as sleep apnea.

In many instances such as the ones mentioned in the previous paragraph, snoring as well as sleep apnea may be identified with the help of your companion. It is common for those suffering from sleep apnea they begin to snore heavily when they fall asleep. If they stop snoring for some time, which is that is followed by a gasp or more frequently, an exaggerated “snort” that means that the breathing stopped, and has resumptuated. This can be extremely annoying for both parties, and for the sufferer of apnea, it can result in excessive drowsiness throughout the day as their sleep patterns are constantly disrupted, even when they don’t wake up.

If you are a person who sleeps alone there may be other signs to be on the lookout to that could suggest that you have snoring issues and sleep apnea. If you do, you could then schedule an appointment for a consult with your physician. The symptoms are:

* Extreme drowsiness throughout the day, and falling asleep unintentionally.

Unrefreshed after a night of sleep.

* Feelings of depression may be a possibility.

* Feelings of fatigue

* Poor memory

* Poor concentration

* Morning headaches

Possible personality change

• Hyperactivity among children

* Severe swelling of the legs

For your doctor to accurately and clearly diagnose snoring and sleep apnea, they will need undergo a polysomnogram (sleep diagnosis). Other tests your doctor might suggest include blood gas analysis of arterial blood as well as electrocardiogram (ECG) as well as echocardiogram and/or thyroid function tests.

There are certain things you can do to stop or reduce snoring or sleep apnea. It is possible to avoid drinking the consumption of alcohol or taking any type of sedation prior to bedtime and putting in a device which moves the jaw forward and losing weight. If these methods fail the doctor might suggest CPAP, (continuous positive airway pressure). There are also a couple of surgical options; UPPP (Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty) which involve removing excess tissue from the back of the throat; a tracheotomy, (very rarely done), or for children, the removal of tonsils.

If treated properly sleep apnea, snoring, and sleep ap can be controlled or eliminated however, many aren’t ready to undergo CPAP because they think it’s too intrusive.

Alternative solutions can include Yoga and breathing exercises that can aid in strengthening the throat muscles enough to stop from causing breathing problems like apnea or snoring. Some individuals find that changing their sleeping positions may help, specifically elevating the upper part of their torso about 30 degrees. This can allow gravity’s force to aid.

It is nonetheless crucial that people suffering from snoring and sleep apnea must try to treat or treat their condition, as it could have severe consequences like cardiovascular disease (sufferers are 30 percent more susceptible to heart attack) as well as the high pressure of blood, strokes clinical depression, diabetes and overweight.

Is your tap water causing Toxic Water-related Infirmities

Some time ago, I came across an advertisement for a job that enticed me. They were looking for agents to visit homes and conduct tests for tap water. If you’ve been following my earlier blog posts, I’ve been searching to live a healthier lifestyle, and I was very interested in learning more about this.

I completed a lot of instruction to be able to visit homes of residents. I performed different tests on their water. This allowed them to observe through their own eyes the harmful and toxic the tap water is.

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In the course my teacher demonstrated every part of these tests with a written script that included details for each. I will not forget the day that when he conducted the test of comparison with tap water. The eyes of my were open and I was nauseated in my stomach. I was able to clearly comprehend how tap water can cause toxic health issues in my body due to water. Following that incident, I promised myself that I would never consume tap water ever again. I’ve kept that promise.

It was a lot of detailed details, regarding the tests I had to understand and master before I was able to become certified. I began my training as a marathon runner. I set out to be the most effective representative that I was able to be. I was determined to help people understand know the facts about water they’re bathing in, drinking and brushing their teeth in and washing their clothes, cooking their food and washing dishes. their meals.

I sat for long hours, learning specifics of a script that we needed to be familiar with before putting my own personal style into the script. I was provided with a mini test kit to perform the demonstrations at home. I took every test repeatedly until I felt comfortable and confident in my ability to know that I could do it with the palm of my hands. I also made use of my small system in order to ensure healthy water at home to drink and brush my teeth.

I was extremely passionate about what I had been doing. When I visited the homes of others I was able to draw them by my genuine enthusiasm and passion for the harmful effects of tap water. They could also observe every outcome in them.

One testing I performed:

Cleaning Clothes Test: demonstrated to the students how their clothes were soiled with dirt and soap within them, even after they were cleaned and thoroughly rinsed.

Chlorine Test The test showed that there was enough chloride in the tap to disinfect a pool.

Testing Spots On Dishes I washed a dish for them in the water, and then rinsed another glass using our system. We then put them up before their eyes to determine the differences.

Hand Washing Test One of their hands with tap water, and the other one with our purified water system. The difference that they felt was instantaneous.

Taste Test A more convincing test included a taste test. The distinction between pure tap and tap water that is clean is night and day.

Comparison Test The most convincing and convincing test. I show them, through their eyes the impurities and garbage that are present in water from the tap. I also tested their bottled water and they got identical results.

I did not have the money to buy an “whole household system” at the start. After I sold my initial three systems, and had completed the three-month trial I was offered an enormous discount, which allowed me and my husband to buy our own “whole household solution” for our house.

I’m not going to be honest with you. The system isn’t inexpensive. It was a significant sacrifice and financial commitment even with my huge discount. I truly believe in this! It is impossible to put a for your health and that of those you love. Brett and I haven’t regretted for a single minute, the decision we made.

What value do you place in Your Health?

I highly recommend that you find an established distributor in your region which can supply you with pure, pure air and water, as an “whole home system.” I’ve shared with you the facts as I’ve seen it.

Most dogs with idiopathic epilepsy suffer their first seizure

Canine Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain where abnormal electrical activity triggers further uncoordinated nerve transmission. This uncoordinated and haphazard nerve tissue activity scrambles messages to the muscles of your dog’s body and the use of muscles are then inhibited.

IDIOPATHIC OR SYMPTOMATIC

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Because there are many causes of chronic recurrent seizures in dogs, canine epilepsy is not a specific disease or even a single syndrome, but rather a diverse category of disorders. Canine Epilepsy is broadly divided into idiopathic and symptomatic disorders. Idiopathic Epilepsy, or primary epilepsy, means that there is NO identifiable brain abnormality other than the seizures. Symptomatic epilepsy (or secondary epilepsy) is seizures that are the consequence of an identifiable specific cause.

Most dogs with idiopathic epilepsy suffer their first seizure between the ages of one and five years of age. A possible genetic basis for idiopathic epilepsy is suspected in several breeds including those purebreds used in the development of Australian Labradoodle and Labradoodle.

CAUSES OF SEIZURES AND DIAGNOSTICS:

Seizures may be caused by situations within the brain (such as trauma, tumor, or infection) or by situations centered outside the brain (such as low blood sugar, circulating metabolic toxins, hypothyroidism, or external poisons). The first step is to rule out situations centered outside the brain. This is accomplished with blood testing. An ophthalmic exam may also be performed as the retina may show signs of a brain infection. If these tests are negative, the next step is determined by the age of the pet. In my opinion, to date the best testing agency is spearheaded by Dr. Jean Dodd’s and samples can be set by your vet to her organization, hemopet. In my opinion Dr. Dodd’s and UCDavis have the most concentrated resources on the subject. The blog author has no connection with either association.

AFTER BLOOD TESTING, ANIMALS LESS THAN AGE ONE YEAR

Seizures are usually caused by infections of the brain. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, obtained by a tap under anesthesia, would be important.

AFTER BLOOD TESTING, ANIMALS BETWEEN AGES 1 AND 5

In these animals, usually no cause can be found and the term “epilepsy,” which simply means “seizure disorder,” is applied. If seizures are occurring frequently enough, medication is used to suppress them. To understand medications ask your vet or go to canine-epilepsy.net and participate in owner forums on the subject.

AFTER BLOOD TESTING, ANIMALS MORE THAN AGE FIVE YEARS

In this group, seizures are usually caused by a tumor growing off the skull and pressing on the brain (a “meningioma”). Most such tumors are operable if found early. ACT scan or MRI would be the next step. For patients where surgery is not an option, corticosteroids may be used to reduce swelling in the brain.

GENETIC OR TUMOR or OTHER CAUSE

Some reasons for seizures are simple and can be eliminated, some are serious. Don’t jump to conclusions, rule out the simple issues first. We had bulldogs who both had seizures (first one then a few months later the second). We changed food from a high protein food to a lesser food and never had another seizure.

Some forms of epilepsy are inherited. Sodium, potassium, and calcium serve the brain as ions and produce electric charges that must fire regularly in order for a steady current to pass from one nerve cell to another. If the channels that carry them are damaged or impaired from birth an imbalance occurs that can cause misfire and seizures.

Both cancerous and non-cancerous brain tumors can cause seizures. Brain tumors are the most common cause of seizures that begin after age 5. Whenever an older dog begins to have seizures, and causes such as toxins, trauma and diabetes have been ruled out, the possibility of a brain tumor should be considered.

Liver disease is a degenerative inflammatory disease that results in the hardening and scarring of liver cells. The liver becomes unable to function properly due to the scarred tissue, which prevents the normal passage of blood through the liver.

Severe worm infestation can result in seizures. Parasites release toxins that have an adverse affect on the central nervous system.

Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar, which brings on feelings of fatigue and stress, may be a factor in triggering seizures. Scientists have estimated that between 50 to 90 percent of all epileptics suffer from low blood sugar, and 70 percent have abnormal glucose tolerance levels.

Toxic metals such as lead, copper, mercury, and aluminum have also been known to cause seizures. Some pets are very sensitive to such metals, and exposure is common through aluminum cookware, auto exhaust, industrial pollution, household cleaners and copper water pipes.

Flea sprays, collars and yard sprays are also toxic to pets. It is important to keep your epileptic dog as free from chemical pollutants as possible. Think about the environment your dog is living in. Do you use chemical sprays on your lawn? Dogs will sometimes seize only when the lawn is sprayed for weeds. How about the cleaner you use for the floor? Some dogs have been known to seize after the floor has been washed with a pine scented cleaner. Flea and tick medications can also cause seizures. It is recommended that epi dogs be given Interceptor as a monthly heartworm preventative and Frontline used for fleas. Avoid products with Ivermectin it has been known to cause seizures in some breeds. There are many things that can lower a dog’s seizure threshold. Keep a diary of your dog’s seizures. Note down anything you have done or that the dog could have come in contact with that day which could have contributed to seizure. It is also a known phenomenon that some dogs may seizure around the full moon.

Because vaccines may contain proteins and/or organisms, they may produce an allergic encephalitis inflammation of the brain. Vaccinations can lower a dog’s seizure threshold and trigger a seizure. If you feel that this is the case for your dog, ask the vet to split the shots, give them separately at weekly or two weekly intervals and ask for the Rabies shot to be given 2 weeks after that. We strongly recommend titers test versus vaccines, always. This is a blood test to determine if acceptable levels of vaccines are present and therefore not necessary. It is amazing how many years most dogs can go without ever needing to be re-vaccinated.

Infections, cysts and cancer can cause seizures.

A blow to the head causing head trauma from an auto accident, abuse or other accident can lead to life-long seizures.

The role of the kidneys is to remove toxins and excess fluid. When the kidneys become diseased or damaged also called Renal Kidney Failure, the kidney may lose the ability to perform, causing a toxic build-up in the body resulting in a seizure. A toxic build-up can lead to a seizure disorder.

Research points to vitamin and mineral deficiencies as possible causes of epilepsy. The key nutrients that appear deficient in epileptics are vitamin B6, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin D, zinc, taurine, magnesium, and calcium. Diet plays an important role in the management of Canine Epilepsy. It is very important to feed a kibble that is preservative free. Preservatives such as Ethoxyquin and BHT, BHA should be avoided as they can cause seizures. Dogs should not eat grain.

Genetics (from the Canine Epilepsy Project)

“The Canine Epilepsy Project is a collaborative study into the causes of epilepsy in dogs. It is supported by grants from the AKC Canine Health Foundation (CHF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), individual breed clubs and private donations. Grants supporting this research are CHF Completed Grant #1718, CHF Completed Grant #1729, CHF Completed Grant #1845, CHF Active Grant #2252, CHF Active Grant #2304, and NIH Award #1K08NS0224501.

Their goal is to find the genes responsible for epilepsy in dogs so that wise breeding can decrease the incidence of the disease in dogs. We also hope that knowing what genes regulate epilepsy in dogs may help us better tailor our therapy to the specific cause.

The objectives of their investigations into hereditary canine epilepsy are:

Recruit samples from a large number of affected individuals and their immediate family members (siblings, parents, and grandparents), from many breeds of dogs.

Evaluate the genotype of selected families to search for linkage between DNA markers and clinical epilepsy, and then use this information to identify the causative mutation or mutations.

Devise a DNA marker test that detects and distinguishes normal and mutant (epilepsy-causing) alleles, and make this test available to dog breeders so that they can produce epilepsy-free dogs.

The genes controlling seizure problems in dogs are not well understood. This project is attempting to find the marker(s) or mutation(s) responsible. When these can be identified, a blood test will tell if an individual dog is a carrier, clear, or likely to become an affected (even before symptoms begin). Using this information, breeders can choose breeding partners who will not produce affected puppies.

Breeders and owners often ask what is known about the inheritance of idiopathic epilepsy (also called primary epilepsy or genetic epilepsy). This is an important question because if breeders know the mode of inheritance (that is, the pattern of inheritance across generations), then they may be able to develop breeding strategies that will enable them to breed away from epilepsy. Sometimes, if the mode of inheritance for a disorder is well understood, careful selective breeding can enable breeders to greatly reduce, or even eliminate, the disorder while allowing the breeders to continue with their bloodlines. Of course, when some breeders and owners ask about the inheritance of epilepsy, they are hoping to find evidence that the seizures in their dogs are not due to inherited epilepsy. Sometimes, they do find reason to suggest this. However, many times, they must face the conclusion that inheritance (genetics) was the underlying cause of the seizures.

For readers who are not familiar with the term “mode of inheritance,” we will try to clarify. The mode of inheritance refers to whether the disorder is a simple recessive trait, a simple dominant trait, or a complex trait. Traits that are “simple” are carried by a single gene, while traits that are complex involve more than one gene. With complex genetic traits, the different genes can combine or interact with each other, and the genes can also interact with the dog’s environment. Of course, simple genetic traits are easier to study. The term “recessive” means that a dog will only have the disorder if the defective gene is passed down by both of the parents. Thus, if only one parent passes down the defective gene, the offspring will not be affected with the disorder, although they can be “carriers” and later pass down their one defective gene to their own offspring. The term “dominant” means that the dog can have the disorder even if only one of the parents passes down the defective gene.

As indicated, there currently are no conclusive findings on the mode of inheritance for canine idiopathic epilepsy. However, there are some general theories. Some investigators have theorized that, at least in the breeds they studied, the disorder is likely to be recessive because often two parents that are free of epilepsy produce offspring with epilepsy. Another theory concerns whether the defective gene or genes are carried on the sex chromosomes. (Each dog has 39 pairs of chromosomes which carry all of his or her genes. One member of each pair is inherited from each of the parents. Thirty-eight of these pairs are autosomes and one pair is the sex chromosomes.) Often, when there are sex differences in a trait, the gene for that trait is carried on the sex chromosomes. However, despite the fact that many breeds (though not all) show a higher rate of epilepsy in males than females, the pattern of inheritance across generations suggests that the genes responsible for epilepsy are probably carried on one or more of the autosome pairs. While these two theoretical notions (recessive and autosomal) may indeed prove to be true for many breeds, at the present time, there still is not enough data to draw any firm conclusions, even on the specific breeds for which pedigree analyses have been conducted.

As indicated, there are several researchers who currently are investigating the genetic basis of canine idiopathic epilepsy. If you own a dog with idiopathic epilepsy, or one of your dogs has produced offspring with epilepsy, please contact the canine epilepsy network.”

IF your dog has seizures it is important to notify the breeder and any association or clubs to which they belong. It is only through shared information and pedigree study that genetic conditions can be identified and used to breed wisely.

IDENTIFY SEIZURES (WHEN IS IT AN EMERGENCY?)

Generalized Seizure or Tonic-clonic: The Tonic-clonic seizure has two stages and may come in a mild or Grand Mal version. During the Grand Mal seizure the “tonic” phase is when the dog falls to the ground, rigidly stretches his legs out and loses consciousness. During this time his breathing will also stop. This part of the seizure usually lasts ten to thirty seconds. After this the “clonic” stage begins. It is at this time that owners notice the stereotypical activity that is commonly called a fit.

While the dog is in the clonic stage, he or she will begin any or all of the following symptoms:

1. Paddling of limbs or “running in place”.

2. Jaw movements that look like the dog is trying to chew gum.

3. Pupils in both eyes dilate (become large) and unresponsive.

4. Dog begins salivating or drooling.

5. Dog loses control of bodily functions and begins to urinate or defecate on itself.

TYPES of SEIZURES

In the mild cases of Tonic-clonic seizures there is usually little paddling and no loss of consciousness. Defecation and urination may also not occur.

Petit Mal Seizures have short episodes of the dog being unconscious with instances of muscle tone loss, and blank stares. These types of seizures seem to be very rare in dogs and often require the presence of EEG abnormalities to diagnosis for certainty.

Partial Seizures are odd things where the seizure activities such as the leg paddling, muscle spasms, neck and head bending or the main part of the body and facial muscle spasms only occur in one part of the body. These types of seizures can worsen until they appear to be Grand Mal or Mild Tonic-clonic but the difference is how the seizure began. Both Tonic-clonic types seem to be overall body from the start but the partials may just start at the face or one hip.

Status Epilepticus type seizures can be life threatening. They can appear as one continuous seizure that lasts more than thirty minutes or in a repetitive loop of seizures with the dog never regaining consciousness. Status epilepticus seizures can occur to dogs with a history of Grand Mal or Mild Tonic-clonic seizures and a diagnosis of epilepsy. They can also occur in dogs with no previous seizure activity but that have had an injury to the brain, exposed to toxins such as massive amounts of chocolate, pesticides and poisons or they can be the result of disease.

Cluster Seizures are very similar to the loop of status epilepticus seizures and each are often diagnosed as the other. The difference between the status epilepticus and the cluster seizures is that the dog actually has short time periods returning to consciousness in between each seizure.